Simple and easy to use PCB circuit board heat dissipation method
For electronic devices, they will generate a certain amount of heat when they are working, which will cause the internal temperature of the device to rise rapidly. If the heat is not radiated or reduced in time, the device will continue to heat up, and the device will become too hot. Failure will decline the reliability of electronic equipment. SMT increases the installation density of electronic equipment and reduces the effective heat dissipation area. The equipment temperature is too high, which seriously affects the reliability. Therefore, it is very necessary to conduct a good heat dissipation treatment on the PCB circuit board. The heat dissipation of the PCB circuit board is a very important part, so what are the techniques for the heat dissipation of the PCB circuit board?
Circuit board heat dissipation method
1. High heat-generating device plus heat sink and heat conducting plate
When a small number of components in the PCB generate a large amount of heat (less than 3), a heat sink or heat pipe can be added to the heating device. When the temperature can’t be lowered, a heat sink with a fan can be used to enhance heat dissipation effect. When the number of heating devices is large (more than 3), a large heat sink (board) can be used. It is a special radiator customized according to the position and height of the heating device on the PCB or a large flat radiator cut out different component height positions. The heat dissipation cover is integrally buckled on the surface of the component, and it is in contact with each component to dissipate heat. However, the heat dissipation effect is not good due to the poor consistency of height during assembly and welding of components. Usually a soft thermal phase change thermal pad is added on the component surface to improve the heat dissipation effect.
2. Heat dissipation through the PCB board itself
The currently widely used PCB boards are copper clad/epoxy glass cloth substrates/phenolic resin glass cloth substrates, and a small amount of paper-based copper clad boards are used. Although these substrates have excellent electrical properties and processing properties, they have poor heat dissipation. As a way to dissipate heat from high-heating components, it is almost impossible to expect heat to be conducted by the resin of the PCB itself, but to dissipate heat from the surface of the component to the surrounding air. However, as electronic products have entered the era of miniaturization of components, high-density mounting, and high-heating assembly, it is not enough to rely on the surface of a component with a very small surface area to dissipate heat. At the same time, due to the large-scale use of surface mount components such as QFP and BGA, the heat generated by the components is transferred to the PCB board in a large amount. Therefore, the best way to solve the heat dissipation is to improve the heat dissipation capacity of the PCB itself that is in direct contact with the heating element.
3. Reasonable wiring design
Adopt a reasonable wiring design to realize heat dissipation. Because the resin in the plate has poor thermal conductivity, and the copper foil lines and holes are good heat conductors, increasing the remaining rate of copper foil and increasing the thermal holes are the main means of heat dissipation. To evaluate the heat dissipation capacity of the PCB, it is necessary to calculate the equivalent thermal conductivity (nine eq) of the composite material composed of various materials with different thermal conductivity-the insulating substrate for the PCB.
4. For equipment that adopts free convection air cooling, it is best to arrange integrated circuits (or other devices) vertically or horizontally.
5. The devices on the same printed board should be arranged as far as possible according to their calorific value and degree of heat dissipation. Devices with low calorific value or poor heat resistance (such as small signal transistors, small-scale integrated circuits, electrolytic capacitors, etc.) The uppermost flow (inlet) of the cooling airflow, and the devices with large heat or heat resistance (such as power transistors, large-scale integrated circuits, etc.) are placed at the lowermost side of the cooling airflow.
6. In the horizontal direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the edge of the printed board to shorten the heat transfer path; in the vertical direction, high-power devices are arranged as close as possible to the top of the printed board to reduce the temperature of other devices when these devices are working. Impact.
7. The heat dissipation of the printed board in the equipment mainly relies on air flow, so the air flow path should be studied during the design, and the device or printed circuit board should be reasonably configured. When air flows, it always tends to flow in places with low resistance, so when configuring devices on a printed circuit board, avoid leaving a large airspace in a certain area. The configuration of multiple printed circuit boards in the whole machine should also pay attention to the same problem.
8. The temperature-sensitive device is best placed in the lowest temperature area (such as the bottom of the device). Never place it directly above the heating device. It is best to stagger multiple devices on the horizontal plane.
9. Arrange the devices with the highest power consumption and heat generation near the best position for heat dissipation. Do not place high-heating devices on the corners and peripheral edges of the printed board, unless a heat sink is arranged near it. When designing the power resistor, choose a larger device as much as possible, and make it have enough space for heat dissipation when adjusting the layout of the printed board.
10. Avoid the concentration of hot spots on the PCB, distribute the power evenly on the PCB board as much as possible, and keep the PCB surface temperature performance uniform and consistent. It is often difficult to achieve strict uniform distribution during the design process, but areas with too high power density must be avoided to prevent hot spots from affecting the normal operation of the entire circuit. If possible, it is necessary to analyze the thermal efficiency of the printed circuit. For example, the thermal efficiency index analysis software module added in some professional PCB design software can help designers optimize the circuit design.