Advantages of BGA PCB

With the development of electronic products in the direction of miniaturization, portability and high performance, higher requirements are put forward on circuit assembly technology and the number of I/O pins. Chips are getting smaller and smaller, and there are more and more pins. And rework brings difficulties. In order to meet the needs of development, on the basis of the original packaging varieties, a new variety has been added-Ball Grid Array Package, referred to as BGA .

The birth of BGA ball grid array has made a great contribution to the development of PCB circuit boards. BGA PCB is a kind of SMT PCB package. With this package, microprocessors and other devices can be permanently installed on the PCB. The low inductance of BGA enables it to provide excellent electrical performance. They have good thermal conductivity, so the heat generated by the chip or IC will be transmitted through the entire PCB, which can prevent the chip from overheating.
 
The pin grid array, commonly referred to as PGA, is the standard for packaging integrated circuits on the board so far. However, it has now been replaced by ball grid array or BGA designs. Simply put, although PGA uses square-arranged pins to mount components, BGA replaces the pins with soldered metal balls that are connected to the underside of the unit.
 
Typical integrated circuits designed with BGA include: a chip or processor connected to a substrate. The mold is connected to the slab by a wire. Then attach the solder ball to the other side of the substrate. Ready components are now called packages. Then the package is fixed on the circuit board by using solder.
 
Because BGA has many advantages, it is the first choice in most PCB manufacturing companies.The following are some of the main advantages of BGA that make it popular in the PCB manufacturing process.

  • Lower track density: The metal solder balls are arranged in a grid-like pattern, and the tracking density can be significantly reduced, which in turn means an optimized PCB layout, because the proximity of the balls improves efficiency. Try to use the pin grid array for the same operation, increasing the size of the pins will increase the risk of accidental bridging. However, in the case of BGA, for balls made of solder, bridging is not that important.
  • Reduce the possibility of component damage: The pin grid array requires a soldering process, which may damage the component. On the other hand, for BGA, the solder balls only need to be heated so that they melt and adhere to the PCB. Therefore, the possibility of damage to any component is greatly reduced. In addition, the surface tension between the ball and the circuit board ensures that the package remains in place.
  • Reliability: When using PGA, the fragility of the pins is always a problem. They require special care and are easily bent and damaged. BGA uses pads connected to solder balls, the system is more robust and reliable.
  • Performance improvement: Due to the grid array, the connections inside the BGA are shorter. It translates to a reduction in the sensing level, which usually improves performance at higher speeds.
  • Reduce the incidence of overheating: The reduced thermal resistance between the BGA and the circuit board provides a major advantage. In fact, the heat generated will be dissipated into the circuit board, because the BGA unit provides a heat channel to guide the heat

Soldering technology BGA package
The reflow oven is used to solder the BGA package to the printed circuit board. When the melting of the solder balls starts inside the oven, the tension on the surface of the molten balls keeps the package aligned in its actual position on the printed circuit board. This process continues until the package is removed from the oven, cooled and turned into a solid. In order to have durable solder joints, a controlled soldering process for BGA packages is necessary and must reach the required temperature. When the proper welding technique is used, it can also eliminate any possibility of short circuits.

The main reason for the popularity of BGA packaging is that it has obvious advantages, and its unique advantages in packaging density, electrical performance and cost allow it to replace traditional packaging methods. As time goes by, BGA packaging will have more and more improvements, and the cost performance will be further improved. BGA packaging has flexibility and excellent performance and has a bright future.