Talking about the process flow of PCB

1. Cutting (CUT)
Cutting is the process of cutting the original copper clad laminate into a board that can be made on the production line
First, let's understand a few concepts:
(1) UNIT: UNIT refers to the unit graphics designed by PCB design engineers.
(2) SET: SET refers to a graphic that engineers put together a number of UNITs for reasons such as improving production efficiency and facilitating production. This is what we often call the puzzle, which includes unit graphics, process edges, and so on.
(3) PANEL: PANEL refers to a board formed by putting together multiple SETs and adding tool board edges during the production of PCB manufacturers in order to improve efficiency and facilitate production.

2. INNER DRY FILM
The inner layer dry film is the process of transferring the inner layer circuit pattern to the PCB board.
In PCB production, we will mention the concept of graphics transfer, because the production of conductive graphics is the basis of PCB production. Therefore, the graphics transfer process is of great significance to PCB production.

The inner layer dry film includes multiple processes such as inner layer filming, exposure and development, and inner layer etching. The inner film is to paste a special photosensitive film on the surface of the copper plate, which is what we call a dry film. This film will solidify when exposed to light, forming a protective film on the board. Exposure and development is to expose the board with the film, the light-transmitting part is cured, and the non-light-transmitting part is still the dry film. After developing, the uncured dry film is removed, and the board with the cured protective film is etched. After removing the film, the inner circuit pattern is transferred to the board.

For designers, our main consideration is the minimum line width of the wiring, the control of the spacing and the uniformity of the wiring. Because the distance is too small, it will cause the film to be sandwiched, and the film cannot be completely removed and cause a short circuit. If the line width is too small, the adhesion of the film is insufficient, resulting in an open circuit. Therefore, the safety spacing during circuit design (including line and line, line and pad, pad and pad, line and copper surface, etc.) must be considered during production.
(1) Pre-treatment: grinding plate
The main function of the grinding plate: the basic pre-treatment is mainly to solve the problems of surface cleanliness and surface roughness. Remove oxidation, increase the roughness of the copper surface, and facilitate the film to adhere to the copper surface.
(2) Film
The processed substrate is pasted with dry film or wet film by hot pressing or coating, which is convenient for subsequent exposure production.
(3) Exposure
Align the negative film with the substrate on which the dry film is pressed, and use ultraviolet light on the exposure machine to transfer the negative film pattern to the photosensitive dry film.
(4) Development
Use the weak alkalinity of the developing solution (sodium carbonate) to dissolve and rinse the unexposed dry film/wet film, leaving the exposed part.
(5) Etching
After the unexposed dry film/wet film is removed by the developer, the copper surface will be exposed. Use acid copper chloride to dissolve and corrode the exposed copper surface to obtain the required circuit.
(6) Removal of film
Peel off the exposed dry film that protects the copper surface with sodium hydroxide solution to expose the circuit pattern.

3. Browning
Purpose: to form a microscopic roughness and organic metal layer on the inner copper surface to enhance the adhesion between the layers.
Principle of the process: Through chemical treatment, a uniform and good adhesion characteristic of the organometallic layer structure is produced, so that the surface of the copper layer before the inner layer is adhered is controlled to be roughened, which is used to strengthen the adhesion between the inner copper layer and the prepreg after pressing the plate.合 Strength.

4. Laminate
Lamination is the process of bonding each layer of circuits into a whole by means of the adhesiveness of the pp sheet. This bonding is achieved by mutual diffusion and penetration between macromolecules on the interface, and then interweaving. The discrete multi-layer board and pp sheet are pressed together to form a multi-layer board with the required number of layers and thickness. In actual operation, the copper foil, bonding sheet (prepreg), inner layer board, stainless steel, isolation board, kraft paper, outer layer steel plate and other materials are laminated according to the process requirements.

For designers, the first consideration for lamination is symmetry. Because the board will be affected by pressure and temperature during the lamination process, there will still be stress in the board after the lamination is completed. Therefore, if the two sides of the laminated board are not uniform, the stress on the two sides will be different, causing the board to bend to one side, which greatly affects the performance of the PCB. In addition, even in the same plane, if the distribution of copper is not uniform, the resin flow speed at each point will be different, so that the thickness of the place with less copper will be slightly thinner, and the thickness of the place with more copper will be slightly thicker. some. In order to avoid these problems, various factors such as the uniformity of the copper distribution, the symmetry of the laminate, the design and layout of the blind and buried holes, etc. must be considered in detail during the design.

5. Drilling
Through holes are generated between the circuit board layers to achieve the purpose of connecting the layers.

6. Immersion copper plate plating
(1)Shen copper
Also called chemical copper, the drilled PCB board undergoes oxidation-reduction reaction in the sinking copper cylinder to form a copper layer to metalize the holes, so that copper is deposited on the surface of the originally insulated substrate to achieve inter-layer electrical communication.
(2)Plate plating
Thicken the PCB surface and the copper in the hole to 5-8um on the PCB board that has just been copper-immersed to prevent the thin copper in the hole from being oxidized and micro-etched off before the pattern plating and leaking the base material.

7. Outer dry film
The process is the same as the inner dry film.

8. Outer layer pattern plating, SES
The copper layer of the hole and circuit is plated to a certain thickness (20-25um) to meet the copper thickness requirements of the final PCB board. And etch away the useless copper on the board surface, exposing useful circuit patterns.

9. Solder mask
Solder mask, also called solder mask and green oil, is one of the most critical processes in the production of printed boards. It is mainly through screen printing or solder mask ink coating, a layer of solder mask is applied to the board surface, and the process is exposed and developed. , Expose the disk and hole to be soldered, cover other places with solder mask to prevent short circuit during soldering

10. Silkscreen characters
The required text, trademark or part symbol is printed on the board surface by screen printing, and then exposed on the board surface by ultraviolet radiation.

11. Surface treatment
The solderability of bare copper itself is very good, but long-term exposure to the air is easy to be damp and oxidized. It tends to exist in the form of oxides and is unlikely to remain as the original copper for a long time. Therefore, surface treatment of the copper surface is required. The most basic purpose of surface treatment is to ensure good solderability or electrical properties.
Common surface treatments: spray tin, immersion gold, OSP, immersion tin, immersion silver, nickel palladium gold, electric hard gold, electric gold fingers, etc.

12. Forming

Cut the PCB multilayer pcb manufacturing to the required external dimensions with a CNC molding machine.


13. Electrical measurement
Imitate the state of the board, check the electrical performance after power-on, and check whether there is an open or short circuit.

14. Final inspection, random inspection, packaging
Inspect the appearance, size, aperture, thickness, marking, etc. of the board to meet customer requirements. The qualified products are packed into bundles, which are easy to store and transport.