PCBA Processing BGA Welding Quality Inspection and Detection Method

BGA (Ball Grid Array) is a common electronic component packaging method, which is widely used in PCBA processing. Since the solder balls of BGA package are hidden at the bottom of the chip, it is challenging to check its welding quality.

The Importance of BGA Welding Quality Inspection

BGA welding quality directly affects the performance and reliability of electronic products. Due to the concealment of solder balls, if poor welding (such as cold soldering, cold soldering, solder ball short circuit, etc.) is not discovered in time, it may cause product function failure and even cause safety problems. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure the quality of BGA welding.

BGA PCB assembly

Common BGA welding quality inspection methods

Visual inspection
Visual inspection is usually a preliminary inspection of BGA through a microscope. This method is mainly used to detect the appearance defects of BGA PCB assembly welding, such as deformation and dislocation of solder balls.
Advantages: low equipment cost and simple operation.
Disadvantages: Unable to detect defects inside and at the bottom of the solder balls, relying on the experience of the operator, and highly subjective.
X-ray inspection
X-ray inspection uses the penetration ability of X-rays to perform imaging inspection on BGA. Through the X-ray image, the internal structure and welding condition of the solder ball can be clearly seen.
Advantages: It can detect defects inside and at the bottom of the solder ball, with clear imaging and intuitive test results
Disadvantages: The equipment cost is high, the operation is complicated, and professionals are required
Ultrasonic inspection
Ultrasonic inspection uses high-frequency ultrasonic waves to detect BGA solder joints. The quality of the solder joints can be judged by analyzing the echo signal of the ultrasonic wave.
Advantages: It can detect internal defects of the solder joints without damaging the materials
Disadvantages: The equipment cost is high, and the detection accuracy is limited by the ultrasonic frequency
Electrical testing
The electrical test measures the electrical characteristics of the BGA solder joints (such as resistance, capacitance, etc.) to determine the welding quality. This method includes open circuit, short circuit test and functional test.
Advantages: It can directly reflect the electrical performance of the solder joints and can be performed after the circuit board is assembled.
Disadvantages: It cannot provide physical defect information of the solder joints, and has high requirements for test equipment and test conditions.
Infrared thermal imaging inspection
Infrared thermal imaging inspection detects the thermal distribution after the circuit board is powered on, and identifies abnormal hot spots that may be caused by poor welding.
Advantages: Non-destructive testing, which can monitor the thermal distribution in real time.

Disadvantages: The equipment cost is high and the technical requirements for operators are high.

In actual production, a single detection method may be difficult to fully cover all welding defects. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of BGA welding quality detection, multiple methods are usually applied in combination. For example, visual inspection is used for preliminary screening, followed by detailed inspection with X-rays or ultrasound, and finally the electrical performance of the solder joints is verified by electrical testing. PCBAMake also strictly follows this process to ensure the quality of customers.

The detection of BGA welding quality is crucial to ensure the reliability of electronic products. The comprehensive application of multiple detection methods can more comprehensively evaluate the BGA welding quality and ensure the performance and stability of the product.

PCBAMake has the latest X-RAY equipment and strictly checks the customer's products one by one in accordance with various standards. We continuously improve the detection technology and means to ensure that the products delivered to you are of high quality and high standards. We can cope with the enhanced market competitiveness. If you have any needs, you can contact us at any time.